The parish of Gluvias or S. Gluvias, formerly called Behethelan, Betheldan, or Bohellan, is situated in the deanery and hundred of Kirrier; and is bounded on the north by Perranarworthal and Mylor; on the east by Mylor and Budock; on the south by Mabe; and on the west by Stythians.
The estimated tithable lands of the parish amount to 2590 acres; of which 2070a. are cultivated as arable; 240a. as woodland; 262a. as common land; 3a. as orchard; and 15a. as glebe.
The tithes are commuted at £506 10s 6d., and are apportioned as follows:
By the act of Parliament of June 27, 1644, which separated Falmouth from Budock and Gluvias, it was provided that the mayor and corporation of Falmouth should pay £3, and the rector of Falmouth 6s. to the vicar of Gluvias.
The parish actually measures 2574a. 2r. 25p.; of which the glebe measures 14a. 0r. 36a.; the church and churchyard 1a. 1r. 13p.; roads 6a. 3r. 4p.; and waste at low water at Penryn 47a. 1r. 21p.
The living is a vicarage in the patronage of the Bishop of Exeter.
The following list of incumbents has been made:- Walter Myn, perpetual curate; he was one of the provosts of Glasney College, and was licensed January 23, 1384, to celebrate divine service in Capelle Beate Marie de Penryn; John Oby, vicar; he was also one of the provosts of Glasney College, and was collated as such, December 4, 1491; Thomas Chard, 1508; John Andrew, 1536; John Collier, 1696; George Allanson, he was archdeacon of the county, and died in 1741, and lies buried at the east end, on the outside, of S. Tudy church, of which parish he was rector; John Penrose, he was vicar for 35 years, and died in 1776; William Johnston Temple, vicar in 1782, died in 1796; John Francis Howell, vicar in 1820; John Sheepshanks, collated in 1824, he was also archdeacon; and the Rev. William John Phillpotts, the present vicar, eldest son of the Bishop of Exeter, admitted March 25, 1845; he is also archdeacon, prebendary of Exeter cathedral, and chancellor of the diocese.
The church was dedicated, July 25, 1318, to S. Gluviacus, martyr; it comprises a chancel, nave, north and south aisles, extreme south aisle, north, south, and west galleries, vestry and store-room. The roofs, which are semi-circular, and rest on moulded cornices, are supported by three rows of tall Composite columns, which gives the structure the appearance of some of the metropolitan churches. The altar-piece is of very neat polished paneling in the Elizabethan style; and the pulpit is enriched with well carved antique panels and angle pieces. The pew of the mayor of Penryn has inscribed on it in small wooden letters "J. Williams, Mayor, 1746." The font is of a good Gothic pattern. On the front of the western gallery are the following inscriptions.
BOROUGH OF PENRYN - BENEFACTIONS
LUKEY's LANDS - Thomas Lukey by Feoffment deed in 1612, gave to certain persons Lands in Penryn, which were declared to be in trust for the Inhabitants of Penryn, and are now held by the Council under the Municipal Reform Act.
GRAMMAR SCHOOL - Endowed by Queen Elizabeth with the Annual Stipend of £6 18 0 secured under an Act of the 22nd of Charles 2nd, by deed of June 5th, 1677, payable at the Land Revenue Office, London, for which three Boys my be taught for free.
HUMPHREY'S CHARITY - James Humphrey, of Penryn, by will May 26th, 1823, bequeathed £3,000 to the Revd. H. H. Tremayne, Revd. Edward Rodd, J.H. Tremayne, Esqr. and R.D. Michell, Gent., or such of them as should be living at the time of his Death, and the Mayor of Penryn, and the vicar of St. Gluvias for the time being. Invested (less Legacy duty) in the 3 1/2 pr. Cent Consols - the Annual dividends £86 11 6, to be paid to certain persons during their lives - and as they die, to be paid in Annuities of £10 to persons in reduced circumstances living in Penryn. June, 1841
BOROUGH OF PENRYN, AND PARISH OF SAINT GLUVIAS, BENEFACTIONS
LUDGIE'S BEQUEST - Richard Ludgie of Gluvias, by his will dated February 4th, 1722, bequeathed to John Worth and Thomas Hearle, of Penryn, the residue of his property, to be disposed of as they should think fit, not consisting of a Freehold Estate at Treluswell.
SACRAMENTAL SERMONS - Thomas Hearle, of Penryn, by his Will dated October 31st, 1733, bequethed £3 per annum forever to the Mayor of Penryn, to pay for three Sermons to be preached by the Lecturer annually at Gluvias Church, on the most convenient day in the week (except Sunday), preparatory to the administration of the Sacrament on the Festivals of Christmas, Easter, and Whitsuntide or Trinity Sunday, and charged the same on Cock's Lands in Penryn.
SUNDAY AFTERNOON LECTURE - Founded by the said Thomas Hearle, August 29th, 1735, and endowed with £20 per Annum, charged on Ludgie's Estate.
VERRAN's CHARITY - Mr. John Verran, of Penryn, who died July 26th, and was buried July 28th, 1758, bequeathed the Sum of One Thousand Pounds to Trustees named in his will, to be laid out in Stock or placed at interest, and the clear Yearly Produce thereof to be disposed of as follows, viz., Twenty Shillings to be paid every Year to the Vicar of Gluvias for the time being for preaching a Charity Sermon annually, in Remembrance of him on the anniversary of his death or Burial, and the Remainder to such and so many aged poor Men, who have been reputable Tradesmen and Inhabitants of the Borough of Penryn, not having received Pay or Relief; or such poor Widows, or other Persons not exceeding Eight in the whole, as the major part of the Trustees shall deem to be proper objects of Charity; provided they are such as have lived and continue to live in the communion of the Church of England, as by law established, a preference being given to the descendants of his Father, John Verran, before any other persons whatever.
The entrances of the church are - a south door, a north door, a priest's door, and a private door to a pew appropriated to the hotel at Penryn.
The tower is of three stages, is buttressed on the square, and finished with battlements; it contains six good bells. The staircase or newel is surmounted by a battlemented turret. On the ground floor the tower communicates with the vestry on the south side, and with the store-room on the north side, through large semi-circular arches. The church is buttressed on the north side.
On a brass in the floor of the south aisle, on which are engraved the effigies of the deceased and the original arms of the Killigrews, namely, gules, three mascles or, is the following inscription: -
Hic jacet Thomas Kyllygrewe, Genenosus, Johan'a ac Elizabeth uxon ejus Et omniu' libenonum suonum quonum Animabus Propicietun deus, Ame'.
Monuments, nearly all of marble, and some of them costly, bear the following inscriptions:-
The following are from the churchyard.-
Mors corona vitae
Here lies the Body of the late Rev. James Evans, Lecturer and Schoolmaster of Penryn, and Vicar of Tintagel. He departed this life the 8th day of October, Anno Domini 1769, in the 58th Year of his Age.
Underneath this stone are deposited the Remains of the Revd. William Johnstone Temple, late Vicar of this parish. Also of Anne Temple his beloved wife. Also of William Johnston Temple, their eldest son, late Ensign in the 46th Regiment of Foot.
William Johnstone Temple died Janurary 6th,
1787; aged 18years.
Here lieth the body of John Williams, who died April 13, 1810; aged 31. A faithful servant, and an honest man.
Sacred to the memory of Francis Enys, of Enys,
Esqr. who died April 12th, 1821; aged 69 years.
Sacred to the memory of Maria, the wife of the Rev. John Sheepshanks, viacr of this parish, who died December 22nd, 1841; in the 74th year of her age.
Also to the Revd. John Sheepshanks, M.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge, viacr of this parish with Budock, and Archdeacon of Cornwall. Born at Linton in Yorkshire 5th May, 1765; died in the 80th year ofhis age 17th December 1844.
A large portion of his income was devoted to the relief of the necessitous, - the maintenance of parochial schools, - and the reparation of the house of God.
Beneath this stone, (placed by the inhabitants of Penryn as a memorial of the awful dispensation) were interred in one grave the bodies of Twenty shipwrecked strangers! These unfortunate persons, invalids and followers of the British army in Spain, had recently arrived at Falmouth from Lisbon, in the Queen Transport. Early in morning of January 14th, 1814, during a violent snow storm the ship parted from her anchor, was dashed in pieces on Trefusis Point, and 195 souls were instantly plunged into the awful gulph of eternity!
Gluvias next to PERYN. The stipendarye in the parish church there. Founded by divers persons. To find a prest to celebrate in the parish churche to aid the curat ther, and to do certyn obytts for the sowles of the founders. The incumbent there hathe for his stipend lxxviij s. vij d. ob.
The value of the lands and tenements yerelye, iiij li. iiij s. viij d.
In the Valor Ecclesiastious of Henry VIII., parochia Gluviaci is rated at £10 10s.
It is said the church owes its present internal metropolitan appearence to the following circumstance. A London builder was engaged in renovating the mansion at Carlew, and while so employed, undertook the reconstruction of this church, which he was allowed to effect after his own plans. Previous to this internal arrangement was similiar to that of the generality of Cornish churches, indications of which may yet be seen.
The manor of Casawes, Gosose, or Cosawis, belonged to the Bodrugans, and after the attainder of Sir Henry Bodrugan it was given by Henry VII. to Sir Richard Edgcumbe, whose descendant, Lord Mount Edgcumbe, sold it to the late Sir William Lemon, Bart.
The barton of Casawes was formerly a seat of the family of Carverth of Carveth. Here was born Captain Henry Carverth, a distinguished naval officer in the reign of Charles II.; he was raised by his merit to the rank of standing captain under the Earl of Ossory, for which post he received £300 per annum for life. He died in November, 1684, and was interred in Gluvias church with military honours. On the death of the last heir male of this family, the barton, which was held on lease from the Edgcumbes, passed to the Levertons.
On this estaate there was formerly a chapel dedicated to S. Magdalen, and was supposed to have been a chantry chapel connected with Glasney college. It was situated near the farm of Casawes, between the house and the wood, on a spot of ground which overlooked the valley towards Perranarworthal. A field near by is still called the Chapel close. Some pillars belonging to the chapel were standing in the latter part of the last century, and a farmer named Trevena is said to have removed the floor stones near the same time.
In Casawes Wood are the Gunpowder Mills of Messrs. Sampson and Company, who have their stores in the Commercial Road, Penryn.
Roscrow continued to be the seat of the family of that name until the reign of Henry VI., when it became extinct in the male line. Thomas Killigrew, Esq., whose monumental brass may still be seen in the south aisle of the church, died seised of Roscrow, which he held under the Bishop of Exeter, in 1484. Thomas Harry is said to have been the next possessor; he settled at this place in the reign of Henry VIII., and took the name of Roscrow. His grandson sold the barton to Samuel Pendarves, Esq. It continued to be a seat of this family until 1725, when on the death of Alexander Pendarves, Esq., then M.P. for Launceston, it descended to his niece Mary, relict of Francis Basset, Esq. Alexander Pendarves was seven times M.P. for Penryn; he married first the lady Dorothy De Burgh, only child of Richard, eighth earl of Clanricarde, by whom he had no issue. He married secondly Mary, daughter of Bernard Granville, Esq., and niece of George Lord Lansdowne. This lady was born at Coulton in Wiltshire, in 1700, and married Mr. Pendarves, at the instigation of Lord Lansdowne, when in her seventeenth year. The marriage, however, was anything but a happy one. After the decease of her husband in 1723, she removed to London, and entered into a correspondence with Dean Swift, particularly from 1730 to 1736, and several of her letters may be found in his works. In 1743 Mrs. Pendarves married Dr. Delany, with whom she lived happily until his death in 1768. A friendly intimacy subsisted between Mrs. Delany and the Duchess Dowager of Portland, which ended only at the death of her grace; after which George III. assigned to her use a handsomely furnished home at Windsor, accompanied with an annuity of £300. This was not done as a mark of royal esteem only, but from a wish of their majesties to have near their persons a woman of such great merit. The pension was from friendship and delicacy, paid half-year by the queen herself, up to the time of Mrs. Delany's death in 1789. She was interred in S. James's church, London, and standing against one of the pillars is a monument, on which her virtues and illustrious descent are recorded.
Mrs. Delany was distinguished for her talent in oil and water colour painting; she also excelled in embroidery and shell work, and at the age of 74 invented a flora of a most singular kind, formed by tinted paper, which she arranged so as to form the most exact resemblance of the flowers she wished to delineate. In this way she imitiated in the course of eight years, more than a thousand different sorts of flowers. In 1782 Mrs. Delany lost her sight. The following lines, composed when in her 80th year, and the only ones ever published of her own composing, were prefixed to the first voume of her Flora: -
Roscrow is the property of J.F. Basset, Esq., and the residence has been occupied by two or three genteel families.
Enys is said to have been the property of the family of that name in the days of Edward I. It is situated about a mile and half to the north of Penryn, and the grounds are enlivened with diversified and picturesque scenery. Camden in his "Magna Britannia", notices the fine gardens at Enys. The mansion was originally built in the same of the letter E, and has been rebuilt by the present proprieter, John Samuel Enys, Esq., on the old foundations.
Robert de Enys who lived temp. Edward I., is the first of the family recorded in the College of Arms; and the succeeding generations have allied themselves with some of the best families of the county, namely, those of Reskymer, Robartes, Pendarves, Gregor, Godolphin, Basset, and others.
Samuel Enys was M.P. for Penryn in 1660, the first parliament of Charles II.
Samuel Enys was sheriff in 1709. He married Dorothy, sister and coheiress of Sir William Willys, Bart., of Fen-Ditton, Cambridgeshire.
John his eldest son, was sheriff in 1751. He married Lucy, second daughter of Francis Basset, Esq., of Tehidy, and aunt to the late Lord De Dunstanville.
John Enys was sherriff in 1796; and died October 11, 1802.
Francis second son of John Enys and Lucy Basset succeeded to the property. John their third son, became a Lieutenant-Colonel in the 29th Regiment of Foot, and commanded under the Duke of York in Holland.
Lucy-Anne, sister to John Enys, who died in 1802, married in 1794, Samuel Oliver Hunt, Esq., of Houndshill, in the county of Worcester, who by royal license in 1813 took the name and arms of Enys only; and their son John Samuel Enys, Esq., who was sheriff in 1824, is the present proprietor and occupier of Enys. He married in 1834, Catherine, eldest daugther of the late Davies Gilbert, Esq., P.R.S.
In an ancient Cornish drama, brought into Oxford in 1450, the MS. of which is still preserved in the Bodleian Library, notice is taken of Enys, Arwinnick, Tregember, Kegyllack, Penryn woods, and Bohellan fields; from which it might be assumed that the author was a resident in the locality.
On the estate of Bohelland or Bethethland are the remains of a circular entrenchment, the diameter of which is about thiry fathoms.
Bohelland is said to have been the scene of a most singular tragedy which took place early in the seventeenth century. The particulars of this dreadful affair were detailed in a pamphlet published in 1618, entitled, News from Perin in Cornwall; of a most bloody and unexampled Murther very lately committed by a Father on his owne Sonne (who was lately returned from the Indyes) at the instigation of a mercilesse Step-mother. Together with their severall most wretched endes; being all performed in the month of September last, anno 1618.
The pamphlet consisted of sixteen pages in black-letter, and was illustrated with several wood engravings.
The following account, said to have been taken from the above-mentioned pamphlet, is recorded by Saunderson in his annals of James I.
"The parent had been blessed with ample possessions and fruitful issue, unhappy only in a younger son, who taking liberty from his father's bounty, and with a crew of like condition that wearied on land, they went roving to sea, and in a small vessel southward, took boot from all they could master, and so increasing force and wealth, ventured on a Turk's man in the Streights; but by mischance their own powder fired themselves, and our gallant, trusting to his skilful swimming, got on shore upon Rhodes, with the best of his jewels about him; where offering some to sale to a Jew who knew them to be the Governor's of Algiers, he was apprehended, and as a pirate, sentenced to the gallies among other christians, whose miserable slavery made them all studious of freedom, and with wit and valour took opportunity of means to murther some officers, got on board of an English ship and came safe to London; where his misery, and some skill, made him servant to a surgeon, and sudden preferment to the East Indies. There, by this means he got money; with which returning back, he designed himself for his native county, Cornwall. And in a small ship from London, sailing to the west, was cast away upon that coast. But his excellent skill in swimming, and former fate to boot, brought him safe to shore, where, since his fifteen years' absence, his father's former fortunes much decayed, now retired him not far off to a country habitation, in debt and danger.
"His sister he finds married to a mercer, a meaner match than her birth promised. To her at first he appears a poor stranger, but in private reveals himself, and withal what jewels and gold he had concealed in a bow-case about him; and concluded that the next day he intended to appear to his parents, and to keep his disguise till she and her husband should meet, and make their common joy complete."
"Being come to his parents, his humble behaviour suitable to his suit of clothes, melted the old couple to so much compassion as to give him covering from the cold season under their outward roof, and by degrees his travelling tales, told with passion to the aged people made him their guest so long by the kitchen fire, that the husband took leave and went to bed. And soon after his true stories working compassion in the weaker vessel, she wept, and so did he; but compassionate of he tears, he comforted her with a piece of gold, which gave assurance that he deserved lodging, to which she brought him; and being in bed, shewed her his girdled wealth, which he said was sufficient to relieve her husband's wants, and to spare for himself; and being very weary fell fast asleep".
"The wife tempted with the golden bait of what she had, and eager of enjoying all, awakened her husband with this news, and he contrivance what to do; and though with horrid apprehension he oft refused, yet her puling fondness (Eve's enchantments) moved him to consent, and rise to be master of all, and both of them to murder the man, which instantly they did; covering the corpse under the clothes till opportunity to convey it out of the way."
"The early morning hastens the sister to her father's house, where she with signs of joy, enquires for a sailor that should lodge there the last night; the parents slightly denied to having seen any such, until she told them that he was her brother, her lost brother; by that assured scar upon his arm, cut with a sword in his youth she knew him; and were all resolved this morning to meet then and be merry".
"The father hastily runs up, finds the mark, and with horrid regret of this monstrous murther of his own son, with the same knife cuts his own throat."
"The wife went to consult with him, where in a most strange manner beholding them both in blood, wild and aghast, with the instrument at hand, readily rips herself up and perishes on the same spot."
"The daugther, doubting the delay of their absence, searches for them all, whom she found out too soon; with the sad sight of this scene, and being overcome with horror and amaze of this deluge of destruction, she sank down and died; the fatal end of that family."
"The truth of which was frequently known, and flew to court in this guise; but the imprinted relation conceals their names, in favour to some neighbour of repute and kin to that family. The same sense makes me therein silent also."
This dreadful event was wrought into a play by George Lillo, author of George Barnwell, entitled The Fatal Curiosity, and if terror and pity form the bases of tragedy, this is built on the most legitimate foundation.
Gluvias, says Norden , the churche for Penrin borrowe, yet but a chappell appendant unto Budock, called Capella de Behelland; so called because it was buylded upon certayne lande called Behellande feyldes.
Treluswell, which was one of the seats of the Roscrows, passed with Roscrow, except one-fourth part, which one of the coheiresses of the family carried in marriage to Daungers of Carclew. Treluswell is chiefly the property of J.F. Basset, Esq.
Gwarder, formerly a seat of the Hallamores, was sold anterior to 1736, by Henry Hallamore to John Worth, Esq. It is now a superior farm-house, the property of J.S. Enys, Esq. Gwarder is occupied by Mr. James Hearle, descended through the Hearles of Penryn from the ancient Prideaux family of that name.
At the village of Burnt-town, Burntown, or Burnt-house was formerly a seat of the Beauchamps, held on lease under the Edgcumbe family. It latterly became the property of the daughters of John Beauchamp, Esq., formerly of Pengreep.
The borough of PENRYN is pleasantly situated on the declivity of a low hill, projecting in an easterly direction into one of the creeks of Falmouth harbour, lacally known as Penryn Creek or River, and dividing it into two lesser creeks or branches, which embrace the lower portion of the town. Those navigable branches of the creek are each supplied by a small river, and thus washing the town on two sides allow a good space for wharfs of every description, and for the town quay.
A little below the town on each side of the creek, there was anciently a jetty-head, with a chain extending from one to the other, to guard the shipping within. Leland thus alludes to this barrier: "Out of eche side of Penrine Creke, breaketh out an arme or ever it cum to Penrin. Stakes and foundation of stone sette in the creke at Penrine, afore the toun, a little lower than wher it brekith into armes. A gap in the midle of the stakes, and a chain." No remains of these jetties are now to be found.
From the town quay the main street rised gradually in a western direction to the terminus of the Truro and Flamouth branch of the Cornwall Railway, opened here in August, 1863. In the centre of this street stand the market-house and town-hall, built in 1825, to which was added in 1839, an expensive and imposing looking clock turret, built entirely of granite ashlar. From the main street others branch off to the valleys on the right hand and on the left. In the leading street are one or two good hotels, and a Mechanics' Institute, with convenient reading rooms; in New Street is a branch of the Cornish Bank, of the firm of Messrs. Tweedy, Williams, Tweedy, Williams and Company; in the Town hall is a Penny Savings Bank, open every Saturday; on Quay Hill is the office of the Electric Telegraph Company; and in Market Street is the Temperance Hall, built in 1853.
The dissenting places of worship comprise a Wesleyan Methodist chapel, in Chapel Row, built in 1789, and enlarged in 1814, and registered for marriages; a Congregational chapel, in New Street, built in 1805, and opened January 1, 1806; a Primitive Methodist chapel, in S. Thomas's Street, built in 1860; and a Bible Christian chapel, built in 1866.
The public provident societies established here are:- the Freemasons' lodge "Three Grand Principles," No. 967, consecreated in 1863; the Oddfellows' lodge "Star of the West", No. 718, opened in 1842; the Foresters' court "Unity" opened in 1863; a Death club, and three or four Sick clubs.
At the lower end of the town are the Granite Works of Messrs. Freeman. From this place large quantities of scabbled and wrought granite are exported; and tombs, monuments, and chimney-pieces are made of granite and polished by steam-machinery. Adjoining is a massive iron swing bridge which carries the turnpike road over a tidal branch of one of the rivers. In this part of the town also are the steam mills of Mr. Mead, for the manufacture of straw paper, large quantities of which are almost weekly sent to London. The material used is the straw of the oat, and the frabic is complete and perfect. The fine streams of water which flow through the valleys one each side of the town, afford great facilities for its mills, manufactories, and tan-yards.
Early one morning in 1809, a Basking Shark (Squalus maximus ), was seen floudering in the shallows of the creek, a little below the town. It was easily secured, and was found to measure thirty-one feet in length, and nineteen feet in circumference, and was supposed to weigh seven tons.
In the year 1565, it is said that a company of itinerant players staying at Penryn, happened one night to be representing a battle on the stage, just as a party of Spaniards had privately landed to attack and plunder the town. The enemy hearing the clamour of the drums and trumpets of the players, and supposing the townsmen were alarmed and preparing for their reception, precipitately retreated to their boats, after firing a few shots by way of bravado. Thus were the inhabitants delivered from impending danger without incurring any personal risk.
The inscription on the silver tankard presented to the corporation by Lady Killigrew is as follows:-
From Maior to Maior to the towne of Penmarin when they received me that was in great misery, J.K. 1633. This lady was divorced from her husband, Sir John Killigrew, and in consequence was protected by the corporation of Penryn, who bore no good will to Sir John and his new and thriving town of Smithick. Lady Killigrew was the daughter of Sir George Fermor, Knight, of Easton-Neston, in Northamptonshire, ancestor of the Earls of Pomfret. She died in 1648.
The borough of Penryn first sent members to parliament in 1553, 1 Mary; but it was not regularly incorporated until 1619, 17 James I., when that king made it a free borough, at the intercession of William Cotton, bishop of Exeter.
Penryn had however been previously enfranchised in 1275, by Walter Bronescombe, bishop of Exeter, whose charter was as follows:
Carta episcopi pro burgensibus de PENRYN.
Datum apud Penryn die decollacionis beati Johannis Baptiste anno gracie Mo. CCo. XXXmo. sexto, consecracionis nostre anno tercio decimo."
-- Nos autem omnia et singula predicta pro nobis et successoribus nostris concedimus et quantum in nobis est confirmamus.
In cujus rei testimonium sigillum nostrum presentibus duximus apponendum.
Datum Exonie in vigilia pasche anno Domini Mo. CCo. septuagesimo quinto et consecracionis nostre XVIII.
About the same time Bishop Bronescombe founded the College of Glasney, in the parish of Budock, but adjoining to Penryn. He was admonished to do this by a vision in the night; and to this vision his epitaph alludes, thus rendered from the Latin by Prince:
In 1301, 30 Edward I. Thomas de Bytton, then bishop of Exeter, exhibited his claim to certain privileges in his manor of Penryn, which he challenged to be a free borough, and asserted that these rights were enjoyed by his predecessors, who made it a borough. The rights thus set forth in the petition, and secured by the favourable reply which it obtained, were alienated, together with the manor, by Edward VI.; and Penryn remained destitute of its ancient privileges until the reign of Mary, by whom they were again restored with considerable additions.
By the charter of James I. it was granted that the government of the borough should be vested in eleven discreet aldermen or burgesses, a mayor, and twelve common councilmen; and that these should have a recorder, a steward, an office of record every three weeks, a prison, and power to try felons within the precincts of their jurisdictions.
James II. granted the town a new charter, which annulled some of the preceding rights, and vested the election of members in the magistrates of the town only; but no particular use was ever made of this charter.
The right of election afterwards became vested in all the inhabitants who paid scot and lot; their number at the commencement of the present century amounted to 140, and very soon afterwards to 300.
Since the passing of the Reform act in 1832, Penryn has been united with Falmouth, and the united borough, which comprises portions of the parishes of Budock and S. Gluvias, returns two members to parliament. The electors of the united borough amounted in 1862, to 796.
The municipal borough of Penryn is now governed by a mayor, four aldermen, and eleven common councilmen.
The manor of Penryn Foreign or Forryn, and Penryn Borough have belonged from time immemorial to the Bishops of Exeter, who once had a country residence here.
Though not considered as a parish itself, Penryn is in some cases under a separate jurisdiction from that of S. Gluvias. It has a separarte poor-rate, and two churchwardens; one nominated by the vicar of S. Gluvias, and the other by the mayor. Penryn pays two-thirds of the church rate, and S. Gluvias one-third.
During the civil war between Charles and the Parliament, Penryn was garrisoned for the king, but being attacked by the parliamentary forces it surrended to Sir Thomas Fairfax, in 1646.
Christmas plays have been continued in this town from time immemorial; but the performance of these dramatic representations are not almost wholly confined to very young persons and boys.
Penryn has had some very aged inhabitants. John Effingham died here about Feb. 6, 1757; aged 144. He was born here in the reign of James I., and was bred a labourer. In the revolution of James II., he was pressed and served under Lord Feversham, then commander in chief, for several years. On William of Orange coming to England, he served under Marshall Schomberg, and was at the battle of the Boyne, where he behaved with great intrepidity, and was soon after made a corporal. In the reign of Anne he fought under Marlborough at Blenheim, and lost an eye and most of his teeth by the bursting of a musket; he served also in the reign of the first George. When he was discharged he returned to Penryn and worked as a labourer; but for the last thirty years of his life he was voluntarily supported by his neighbours. He was never ill for the last forty years, and assigned as a reason that when young he never drank any spirituous liquors; and when old he rose both summer and winter before six, and went to the next field, cut up a turf and smelled it for some time; used constant exercise, and seldom ate any meat. He walked ten miles about a week before his death.
Mary Sarah, and Jane Studiford died here in February, 1803, each aged 102; a Mrs. Phillips also died at that age; and in 1837 Elizabeth Gooding died at the age of 103.
PENRYN. - The college of S. Thomas of Glaseney. Founded by Walter Goode, (bishop Bronescombe called 'the good' ) Busshop of Exeter. To fynde one dean, vij canons resident, v canons non resydent, vij vicars, and one pryste, called the chauntrye pryste, to celebrate dyvyne servyce daylye in a church annexed to the college, being no parishe churche, but meryle appertaynyng to the same college.
The yerelye value of the lands and possessions, ccxxvij li xiij s vij d.
Im 1258, 43 Henry III., a market on Mondays, and a fair on the festival of Thomas a Becket, the martyr, were granted to Walter Bronescombe, bishop of Exeter for Penryn; and in 1312, 5 Edward II., a fair was granted to be held at the festival of S. Vitalis.
The charter of James I. granted two markets to be held on Wednesday and Saturday, and three fairs, namely, May 1, July 7, and December 21.
There is now but one market held on Saturday; and fairs are held on March 7, May 14, July 9, October 8, and December 21.
The seal of the corporation is very ancient. It has on a shield the bust of a man in profile, couped at the breast, vested over the shoulder, and wreathed about the temples with laurel, tied behind with two ribbons flotant. The inscription is PENRYN BVRGVS.
The Cornwall Railway station is situate at the head of the town; it is 8 1/4 miles from Truro, and 308 3/4 from London. About a quarter of a mile beyond the station is Treliever viaduct, 344 feet long, and 81 feet high; a little below the station, towards Falmouth, is the College Wood viaduct, 964 feet long, and 102 feet high. There is a viaduct also at Ponsanooth, the highest on this portion of the Cornwall Railway, being 650 feet long, and 140 feet high.
The principal village of Gluvias is Ponsanooth; this is a large, populous, and pleasantly situated place, in which a considerable general trade is carried on. It has a large and commodious Wesleyan Methodist chapel, to which a Cemetery is attached; and a Primitive Methodist chapel. The other villages are Burnthouse, and Treluswell where there is a Wesleyan Methodist chapel.
The highest hills above low water are Roscrow Hill 586 feet, and Enys Hill 307 feet.
The reservoir of the Falmouth Waterworks is partly in the parish of Gluvias; from this reservoir Penryn is also supplied.
At Treluswell is a course of green stone, large quantities of which have been quarried for repairing the roads. This does not appear to be a regular lode, but a sort of continuous irregular mass, ranging nearly parallel with the border of the granite, from which it is distant about 200 fathoms. It may be traced to Treluswell, Burnthouse, and Ponsanooth. In some places it forms a green stone slate, dipping like the clay slate, in a direction as if overlaying the granite. In many places on the range of the course, the blocks of greenstone are numerously scattered over the surface.
Hills of superior granite rise from the very back of the town of Penryn, and extend for miles to the north, west, and south. Waterloo Bridge was the first structure of importance built of this granite; and since that period the material has been supplied for many public works. The Penryn quarries have a considerable advantage in being so near the shipping places.
The western side of the parish skirts along the boundary of the granite of Mabe; but it does not extend on this rock, with the exception of a small triangular space near Chywoon, at its northern corner. The rest of the parish lies on felspar rock, both slaty and massive; some of which contain hornblende, from which it passesinto green stone.
These felspar rocks, when they are disintegrated, afford a soil which is covered with luxuriant vegetation, forming a striking contrast with the adjoining granite district.
There are several good agricultural and grazing farms in the parish.
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